Instructor's Manual: Perspectives: An Open Invitation to Cultural Anthropology By Laura Tubelle de González, San Diego Miramar College Chapter 1: Introduction to Anthropology Discussion Questions 1. Ethnography can refer to both a methodology and the product of ethnographic research, i.e. The third area was on colonialism, imperialism, and the creation of the capitalist world-system. [n 1] Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Magnus Hundt and Otto Casmann. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology. INTRODUCTION Anthropological theories of religion are diverse. Legal anthropology or anthropology of law specializes in "the cross-cultural study of social ordering". 21 ff.]  Cultural anthropology is more related to philosophy, literature and the arts (how one's culture affects the experience for self and group, contributing to a more complete understanding of the people's knowledge, customs, and institutions), while social anthropology is more related to sociology and history.  The focus of its research concerns "how cultural beliefs and practices helped human populations adapt to their environments, and how their environments change across space and time. More recent applications include issues such as human rights, legal pluralism, and political uprisings. application of that knowledge to help people of different backgrounds. During the 1970s and 1990s, there was an epistemological shift away from the positivist traditions that had largely informed the discipline. Boas' Primitive Art, Claude Lévi-Strauss' The Way of the Masks (1982) or Geertz's 'Art as Cultural System' (1983) are some examples in this trend to transform the anthropology of 'art' into an anthropology of culturally specific 'aesthetics'. Firstly, anthropologists continued to study political organization and political phenomena that lay outside the state-regulated sphere (as in patron-client relations or tribal political organization).  This project is often accommodated in the field of ethnography. Cultural relativism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. For example, each subfield applies theories, employs systematic research methodologies, formulates and tests hypotheses, and develops extensive sets of data. Physical anthropologists throughout the first half of the 20th century viewed this relationship from a racial perspective; that is, from the assumption that typological human biological differences lead to cultural differences. [n 2], In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows:, Anthropology, that is to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, and Psychology, which speaks of the soul. Their codes of ethics or statements may proscribe anthropologists from giving secret briefings. 342–361 in George Stocking, See the many essays relating to this in Prem Poddar and David Johnson, Historical Companion to Postcolonial Thought in English, Edinburgh University Press, 2004. The little c is the particulars of a specific culture group. Anthropology has recently seen a lively interest in the subject of ethics and comparative notions of morality and freedom. Feminist anthropology is a four field approach to anthropology (archeological, biological, cultural, linguistic) that seeks to reduce male bias in research findings, anthropological hiring practices, and the scholarly production of knowledge. , Attempts to accuse anthropologists of complicity with the CIA and government intelligence activities during the Vietnam War years have turned up surprisingly little.  This has been particularly prominent in the United States, from Boas' arguments against 19th-century racial ideology, through Margaret Mead's advocacy for gender equality and sexual liberation, to current criticisms of post-colonial oppression and promotion of multiculturalism. Similar organizations in other countries followed: The Anthropological Society of Madrid (1865), the American Anthropological Association in 1902, the Anthropological Society of Vienna (1870), the Italian Society of Anthropology and Ethnology (1871), and many others subsequently. 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